It's not so common as to be a stock phrase or a colocation, but I've certainly heard it and read it in the US, in the forms "spewing vulgarities," "spewing obscenities," and "spewing profanity."
I think the idea is that the person is so angry and so out of control that he is shouting at the top of his lungs--and, as often happens when you do that, literally spitting.
A quick search of Google News turns up some examples:
"Spewing vulgarities is a scientifically proven coping and communication mechanism that enhances pain tolerance, conveys emotion, and can create a sense of belonging in groups."
A review of a play: "Enter Vanda, a struggling actress spewing vulgarities..."
"A man was caught on video last week spewing hateful rhetoric and obscenities at a Houston mother who said she was on her way to vote."
"Carrot Weather’s profanity-spewing forecast app arrives on Android."