Difference between the Japanese "buts" (でも、しかし、けれども、が、ただし、etc.) Hi. I wanted to know the difference between the different words for "but" in Japanese: でも、が、しかし、ただし、ただ、けれども / けれど / けど、ところが、のに。 I found some explanations on Internet but I don't trust them because they aren't from native speakers and every person says something different. Also I would like to know which of these words are interchangeable. Thanks!
Nov 4, 2018 12:39 AM
Answers · 5
I will explain it using only the logic of Japanese language. I will write the details later. ーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーー >でも、が、しかし、ただし、ただ、けれども / けれど / けど、ところが、のに。 Many of those Japanse conjuctions works not as adversative conjuction "逆接" such as English word, "but", but as "reservation of conculsion", "結論の保留(= I have not said main thing yet)", which means it can work as adversative and copulative conjuctions "逆接および順接". 1.「オレは行くけど、おまえ、どうする?」  (copulative) 2.「日本に来て和食が大好きになりましたが、中でも好物なのがラーメンです」 (copulative) 3.「和食は好きですが、納豆は嫌いです。」(adversative) 4.「オーストラリアといえば今やオージービーフが全国の家庭で大人気ですが、実はもう一つ、意外な食べ物が日本で人気なんです。それは…」 (copulative) 5.「戦争は終わった。だが兵士たちは返らない」 (adversative) You might wonder : one conjunction works as both of copulative and adversative? Then what is the use of it? The use is, again, "reservation of conculsion". When you say sentence A, and put in the end "が”, "けれど”, ”だが", that shws sentence A is not the main message, the conclusion is reserved, and you have to listen cafully to the sentence B that follows sentence A. Then the relation between sentence A and B can be copulative / adversative ++++でも: で(=に+て)+ も     * even if it is so    に:maker for place, て:maker for fix/competion, も:modest emphasis OK:「でも、やっぱり困るんです」 (=それでも、やっぱり困るんです)   implying "I know it is right, but I cannot accept it" OK:「それでもいいです」     I would accept it (even if it is so) ※ 「それでいいです」 I will accept it. It is all right (for me). +++が、 *** conjuction indicating reservation of conclusion. it can be, but basically not used independently in the begining of the sentence. 「早速ですが、本題にはいります」 「新しい方法を試したが、結局、失敗した」 +++ だが だ < broken sound of である (に+て+ある) it is often used independently in the begining of the sentence. Sounds a little grave and masculine. 「だが、残された時間はあとわずかだ」 「試みは失敗に終わった。だが、きわめて有意義な経験だった」 (To be continued)
November 4, 2018
Hi! OK so first let's make a distinction between 'but' and 'however'. The word ‘however’ is used in the sense of ‘nevertheless’. On the other hand, the word ‘but’ is used as a conjunction between two sentences. This is the main difference between the two words. If 'But' occurs in the beginning of a separate sentence, then it's used in the sense of 'however' or ‘nevertheless’. For the words: ただし、ただ、しかし and ところが。They mean "however" and can be translated as "but" in the beginning of a separate sentence. ただ: similar to ただし, what follows provides additional information about the previous statement. ただし: is used when providing a condition to the previous statement. (A、ただしB = A is true (but only) given B) しかし: used as a contrast to the previous statement. ところが: "in contrast to expectations" (While A is true, contrarily B is true.) が、けれども、けれど and けど mean "but" and are used as a conjunction between two sentences. けど is short for けれど, and hence, is colloquial and less polite. けれど is 98% used only in writings. けれども is more polite than けど and けれど, and can also mean "though" as the particle も is attached to it. が can be said to be used the same way as けど 。 It is also important to know that the word ‘but’ is used in the sense of ‘although’ as in a sentence like: "We invited him to the party, but he did not come." The same goes for でも and のに。Now, でも generally has two usages. If でも (and even けれども) appear in the beginning of a sentence, then they'd mean 'but' or 'however'. But if でも appears between two sentences, it means "even if" or "even though". The same goes for のに which means "although", "in spite of" or "even though". However, there are cases where you should use でも instead of のに。 Example: "Even if it's raining, let's go to the movies" --> 雨が降っても映画館へ行きましょう。You can't use のに in this case. Please note that I've only explained the general differences among those words as there are specifics which could confuse you. Nevertheless, I hope this explanation helps.
November 4, 2018
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