I think in this case, the meaning is that it doesn't exist anymore IN the early years of the 21st century.
When you use "lost to X," it can mean either that X is the place/location where the thing was lost or that X is the person/thing that has lost something. In this case, I believe it means that "the early years of the 21st century" have lost something.
It /could/ mean that the early years of the 21st century are the place/time when the thing was lost, in which case your interpretation is correct.
This seems like a less likely interpretation to me, but I would need more context from the rest of the book in order to know which one the author really means.
In any case, "lost to X" is a rather literary/poetic phrase, and it therefore looks very pretentious in this context. As usual, the author of this book that you're reading seems to be writing in a confusing and overly complicated way, for no good reason.