"I am five bucks/minutes short"? (lacking)
I need fifteen bucks/dollars to see the movie, but I only have ten. I am five bucks short.
The time ended before I finished the exam. I was five minutes short of completing it.
How you say the opposite depends on the context.
The store clerk charged me five bucks over the amount. (too much)
I have five bucks more than I need to see the movie.
I ran five minutes over the exam time.