Best to look at 'gone wrong' as a phrase and not over analyze it. It's derived from the form 'to go wrong', meaning to turn out badly or in an unpredicted way with not so good results.
'gone' is past participle as I think you understand.
And you are right, there are implied words that have been dropped.
"We can prevent growth (that has) gone wrong within us"
'gone wrong' is often used in this fashion.
"Economists blamed the poor results on an economy (that has) gone wrong".
Dropping the implied 'that/which has' is somewhat less formal but very common. It stresses a little bit the fact that it has turned out bad.