1) Porcelain tea set. Or stoneware would be another kind, made of a more course, earthen clay.
2) Honestly I've never heard this one used. It seems rather derogatory according to the dictionary.
3) Faded is different from scuffed. Faded has lost its sheen. Scuffed means pieces have been scraped off by rough handling.
4) Let's have a toast. Or, Let's toast.
5) Hertz should not be capitalized, only when using the abbreviation, Hz. In this quote it refers to the frequency of the vibration, or the pitch, which is not quite in tune, and therefore painful to the ear.