하다 is special in that it is not only an independent verb with a wide usage but also the most important helper verb. It creates a lot of verbs and adjectives by combining with a noun representing the root meaning. For example, 행복하다, 평온하다, 잔잔하다, 웅대하다 are 하다 adjectives, while 말하다, 행동하다, 시작하다, 완료하다, 공격하다 are 하다 verbs.
As you mentioned, there are also -하다 words that are used mostly as a -한 and 하여(서) form to create connecting words like "about", "as regards", "in relation to", and the like.
- 관하다 (be about; be related to; has to do with) => -에 관한, -에 관해(서).
- 대하다 (be about; as regards; in regards of) => -에 대한, -에 대해(서).
- 통하다 (by means of) => 통한, 통해(서).
- 임하다 (facing a situation) => -에 임한, -에 임해(서)
You can just concentrate on their own meaning and usage rather than connecting them with 하다. Theses words have evolved on their own and their original formation with 하다 is not that important anymore.
- 오늘 회의의 주제에 대해서(about) 말씀드리겠습니다.
- 이 문제는 개인의 권리에 관한(having to do with) 것이다.
Your sentence 돈에 대하여 당신에게 중요한 것은 무엇입니까? is a little odd sounding. It is trying to say "What is important to you about money?", but I would say 돈에 관해서/있어서 [or 돈과 관련해서] 당신에게 중요한 것은 무엇입니까?.
The reason is because 대해서 makes a rather direct connection of being squarely about something. For more roundabout relations like "when it comes to something", 관해서, 관련해서, 있어서, and others work better (although it is a very subtle difference).