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How verbs work in Dutch? Hoi! I am a beginer in Dutch, so my quesitom may be silly I was reading a book Jip and Janneke in Dutchm and there were a sentence "En toen zat hij vast". I couldn't understand what does that sentence mean, so I checked words "vast" and "zat" on Wikitionary. And I found out that "zat vast" is past singular of "vastzitten". So my question is: Why the infinitive form brakes down in past? Does it happen for all complicated words? And please, tell me does whis grammar qonstarcion of breaking down verbs has a specific name? I want to read about this more.
Sep 21, 2019 7:28 PM
Answers · 3
Hello Aleksandr, In Dutch we call those verbs 'scheidbare werkwoorden' (separable verbs). They are part of a group of verbs called 'samengestelde werkwoorden' (compound verbs). Compound verbs consist of an adverb (preposition) or adjective + verb. (‘vast + zitten’). We distinguish two groups of compound verbs: separable verbs and inseparable verbs. By far most compound verbs belong to the category separable verbs. Prefixes of inseparable compound verbs are never separated from their verbs. Separable compound verbs can occur in two pieces: in the simple present and simple past, we separate the prefix from the verb. In the past participle, the separable compound verb remains intact. (but there are exceptions) The challenge lies in determining whether a verb is separable or inseparable. The verb is always separable if the adverb (first part) gets the emphasis. On the other hand, if the verb gets the word accent, the verb is inseparable. (A dictionary can help you with this distinction). I hope this will help you. Greetings, Bas Scholts (source:
September 22, 2019
Seperable verbs have a distinguished high tone in the beginning of the word, you always have to separate them: Ik ruim mijn kamer op (opruimen). You separate them and then you turn them around: op - ruimen/ ruimen op. Wij ruimen het huis op ( we tidy up the house). But if you use a Modal verb, you need to put the whole separable verb not seperated in the end of the sentence: Ik moet mijn kamer opruimen. Also if you use the 'Voltooide tijd ( past participle) Then you put the 'ge' part in the middle: Ik heb opgeruimd.
November 18, 2019
Language Skills
Dutch, English, Russian, Ukrainian
Learning Language
Dutch, English