"Kiosk" is common, but it tends to occur in specific contexts.
In a city, a tiny building from which magazines and newspapers are sold can be called a "newsstand" or a "kiosk," but not usually a "booth."
A small exhibit at a convention or a fair is usually called a "booth," not a "kiosk."
There is a specialized use that has become common in the last few years. It can mean a computer intended for public use, that runs a single locked-in, easy-to-use program. The program allows people to do their own data entry, place orders, and so on.
For example, "McDonald's started rolling out ordering kiosks at its US locations in 2015, and the chain hasn't looked back since: by 2020, most of its 14,000 locations will have kiosks installed." The kiosk has a huge touchscreen and people order their food at the kiosk without talking to a human being.