In economics and business:
Goods = a general term in for THINGS, whether raw materials or finished products. This can be contrasted with services. In an economy, companies make either goods or services (hence the name "goods and services tax", another name for value-added tax).
Commodity = a good that is traded, often on an exchange. e.g. gold, copper, coffee, sugar, wood, oil. It is a "basic good" that can be easily substituted for others. (e.g. not an iPhone) Commodities traders are people who work buying and selling commodities, typically working for investment banks. There are commodities indexes, which track the price of commodities.