There actually is no exact modern equivalent. An "arch dell" was the head woman in a gang of female thieves, beggars or gypsies.
Women don't form themselves into gangs much any more, but in the old days, the poor did form such gangs.
One term might be the "boss lady", but that doesn't quite capture it.
In a group of any undesirable women (thieves, stuck-up rich or prostitutes) the one woman who is recognized as the leader might be calle the "alpha bitch", in reference to dog or wolf packs.