Not the same. Here's how I use them.
"Listen to you!"
> "Oh, listen to you! You're acting so smart / tough! (But you aren't smart / tough.)"
To me, it's kind of a sarcastic expression. You can use it with other adjectives, "smart" and "tough" just came to my mind first.
"Listen to yourself!"
> "Listen to yourself! Do you understand what you're saying?"
Usually means I don't agree with what someone is saying, or I think what they are saying just doesn't make sense.