Elements of Art
Color: Also referred to as hue, color is the appearance of an object created by the
quality of light it reflects. The term color also can refer to a paint, dye, pigment,
or other substance that conveys color.
Form: A three-dimensional object or, in an artwork, the representation of a threedimensional
object, defined by contour, height, depth, and width.
Line: A mark on a surface, usually created by a pen, pencil, or brush. Lines vary in
width, length, direction, color, and degree of curve, and can be two-dimensional
Shape: A two-dimensional figure created by connecting actual or implied lines that
enclose an area of space. A shape can be geometric (such as a circle or square)
or organic (having an irregular outline).
Space: The open or empty area round, above, between, within, or below objects.
Shapes and forms are defined by the empty space surrounding them (negative
space) and by the space they occupy (positive space).
Texture: The way a surface feels (actual texture) or looks (visual texture). words such
as rough, smooth, shiny, and dull are used to describe texture.
Value: The lightness or darkness of a color. For example, pink is a light value of red,
while navy is a dark value of blue.