1- PULAR O CARNAVAL: Originally, the full expression would be "Passar o carnaval pulando" (Spend the carnival time jumping). In Portuguese you dont celebrate the carnival, you jump the carnival, thats the way people refer to it. So SPEND THE CARNIVAL JUMPING became JUMP THE CARNIVAL, which means spend the time jumping, dancing and enjoying it.
2- Receber alta = means to be released from the hospital.
Dar baixa no hospital = means to be interned in the hospital. Something funny is that ALTA (high) is the opposit of BAIXA (low).
3- Tráfego carregado = Traffic jam. People hardly ever say it. People prefer to say TRÁFEGO CONGESTIONADO ou ENGARRAFADO (bottled)
4- In English there are music and song. In Portuguese both are MÚSICA, but when it means MUSIC, there is NO PLURAL. When it means SONG, however, you say one música, two músicas (NORMAL PLURAL). Músico is musician. Singer is CANTOR (feminine = CANTORA). Música is also a female musician. Example: A música tocou uma bela música e ela gosta de música (The musician played a nice song, and she likes music).
Contar com = cont on someone or something. In this case, to have. Meu carro conta com um bom sistema de som (My car has a nice stereo). A cidade conta com 10.000 habitantes (The city has 10.000 dwellers). In this example, the musician has an international company to help him
5- Garantem = verb GARANTIR. In this case, to ASSURE. Example: Eu posso não ser um bom jogador de futebol, mas eu garant esforço (I may not be a very good soccer player, but I assure you that i will do my best). Garra = a lot of effort, try hard, do your best. Sometimes you are watching a soccer game and your team is not playing very hard, then the people shout "GARRA". It means "SHOW SOME INTEREST, TRY HARDER, RUN MORE".
Garantir garra = to assure that you will do your best,
As escolas atingidas por um incêndio na cidade do samba, no Rio, garantem muita garra na avenida. Mas elas não concorrem ao título e também não poderão ser rebaixadas.
The Escolas de Samba (the samba companies) that were struck by the fire (there was a big fire in their headquarters, they lost a lot of material) in the city of samba (the local of carnival parade is called Cidade do samba, but it's not a city, it is a place), in Rio, assure everybody that they will do their best (show a lot of effort - garra) in the avenue (where they parade). But they are not competing for the championship (it is a championship, each company get points and a final ranking) and cannot go to second division. (Expanation: because of the problems they had with the fire, it has been decided that they are not contesting the title (they will not be competing) but they cant be sent to the second division either (its like a soccer championship. The worst go to the second division, and the best ones from the second division go to the first division in the next year).
Cheers from Brazil