about "be,do,have" usage in english sentence.
Jan 24, 2008 8:55 AM
Answers · 2
一、have 可作为助动词,构成完成时态,即have done / have been doing I have finished the work. By the end of 2000, this factory had produced 200,000 cars. When we get there, they will probably have left. We have been living here for 20 years. The patient had been coughing for two months before he came to see the doctor. 二、have 作为使役动词,译为“使、让 ”,其后用不定式、现在分词、过去分词作宾语补足语。即 have sth/sb do have sth/sb doing have sth/sb done Who do you want to have type the letter,sir? Don’t have the water running. I must have my hair cut tomorrow. (注意) ⑴ have/make/let 都可以接不定式作宾补,符号省略。get 也可表“使、让 ”,但接不定式作宾补时,符号不能省略。 ⑵ 在表 “使、让”的动词中,只有have 后可接doing 作宾补, 译为 “让某人或某物一直干…” ⑶ have sth/sb done 表达三层含义: ① 请、让、叫别认为自己干 ② 遭遇某种不幸的事情 ③ 使完成某事 三、have 还可作实义动词, 译为 “有”。 ⑴ 其否定式和疑问式可与do 连用。 I have a book. I haven’t a book. = I don’t have a book. Have you a car? = Do you have a car? ⑵ have 的宾语可用不定式一般主动式作定语,也可用不定式一般被动式作定语。当不定式的动作为主语发出,且逻辑上与所修饰词构成动宾关系时,用不定式一般主动式作定语。否则用不定式一般被动式作定语。
January 24, 2008
1. do的用法 do的基本含义是做,进行,它的同义词为perform, accomplish. 一般讲do 的宾语并不十分具体,比如“事情”。而make 的基本含义是“制造,作出”,它的同义词为form, forge, fabricate, manufacture. 。 I don't know what to do. 我不知道干什么好。 What shall I do? 我怎么办呢? 1)构成一般疑问句,例如: Do you want to pass the CET?你想通过大学英语测试吗? 2)do + not 构成否定句,例如: I do not want to be criticized.我不想挨批评。 3)构成否定祈使句,例如: Don't go there. 不要去那里。 说明:构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。 4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气,例如: Do come to my birthday party.一定来参加我的生日宴会。 5)用于倒装句,例如: Never did I hear of such a thing.我从未听说过这样的事情。 说明:引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。 6)用作代动词,例如: ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗? ---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing. Traditional grammar requires the nominative form of the pronoun in the predicate of the verb be: It is I (not me); That must be they (not them), and so forth. Even literate speakers of Modern English have found the rule difficult to conform to, but the stigmatization of It is me is by now so deeply lodged among the canons of correctness that there is little likelihood that the construction will ever be entirely acceptable in formal writing. Adherence to the traditional rule in informal speech, however, has come to sound increasingly pedantic, and begins to sound absurd when the verb is contracted, as in It's we. ?The traditional rule creates particular problems when the pronoun following be also functions as the object of a verb or preposition in a relative clause, as in It is not them/they that we have in mind when we talk about crime in the streets?nowadays, where the plural pronoun serves as both the predicate of is and the object of have. In this example, 57 percent of the Usage Panel preferred the nominative form they, 33 percent preferred the accusative them, and 10 percent accepted both versions. But H.W. Fowler, like other authorities, argued that the use of the nominative here is an error caused by the temptation . . . to assume, perhaps from hearing It is me corrected to It is I, that a subjective [nominative] case cannot be wrong after the verb to be.?Writers can usually find a way to avoid this problem: They are not the ones we have in mind, We have someone else in mind, and so on. 传统语法要求系动词谓语中的代词用主格形式 be: It is I(而不是 me); That must be they(而不是 them),等等。即使现代英语有文化的人也发现很难遵守这个规则,而 It is me的烙印现在已深刻地印入了判断是否正确的准则之中,以致很少有可能使这种用法在正式书面语中被完全接受。但是在非正式讲话中奉行传统规则已经日益变得象在卖弄学问。并且当系动词被缩减时,就象在 It's we中一样,听起来反而象是不合语法的。当代词跟在 be后面做动词宾语或做关系从句中的介语宾语时,传统的规则就象在 当我们谈到当今“街上的犯罪”时,他们不是我们心中所想的那些人,句中复数代词同时充当 is的宾语和 have的宾语。在这个例子中57%的用法使用小组更喜欢用主格形式 they,33%更喜欢用宾格形式 them,而10%则两种都接受。但是象其他的权威一样,H.W.福勒争论道,在这里用主格是一个错误,它之所以错是因为“多半听到了 It is me都被改正成 It is I而拿不定主意,以为主格的情况在动词 to be后面不可能错。”作家们常常能够找到一个办法来避免这个问题: 他们不是我们所想的人,我们脑子里想的是另一些人等等 2. 系动词be的用法: 1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态,例如: They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。 2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态,例如: The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。 3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容: a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排,例如: He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。 说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。 b. 表示命令,例如: You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。 c. 征求意见,例如: How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他? d. 表示相约、商定,例如: We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。 ) 3. 如何选用be和do: 变问句、变否定句的关键 一、首先找一个可以提前的词! (1)先看有无be动词:am, is, are, was, were (2)再看有无情态动词:can(能,会) ,may (可以),must(必须,应当),shall(将),should(应当),will(将),would(将)could(能,会)等。 (3)若无上面二者,再考虑添加其它助动词:do, does(当原句谓语动词上也加有S时), did当原句谓语动词为过去式时) 二、特殊疑问句的公式: He lives in chengdu in China . Where does he live in China . 疑问词 可以提前的词 剩余部分一般从前往后照写(划线部分不再写!) 三、变否定句时,don’t, doesn’t, didn’t 应放在哪里? 一定放在第二词的位置吗? 不!应先找准原句的谓语动词,是放在谓语动词前! 四、练一练 1. He is talking with the teacher. (先变一般疑问句,再变否定句) 2. They can sing this song. (同上) 3. I usually read English at 6:10. (变一般疑问句、否定句、对划线提问
January 24, 2008
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