"I got in trouble" is one very authentic way to say 我被批评了. For example, "I got in trouble for drawing on my desk."
"I got yelled at" is common too, especially if the teacher was unfair or too mean.
"Disciplined" means 被惩罚, so it's different.
"Scolded" sounds a bit formal or old-fashioned, at least in American English.