1)There are no differences between curtir and gostar, you can use both meaning that you like something. but curtir you can also use when you enjoy doing something.
Ex: Eu curti muito a festa ontem à noite. Eu me divertir tanto.
I enjoyed last night's party. I had so much fun!
Ex: Eu curto ler artigos sobre ficção científica.
I like to read science fiction articles.
( but if you want to change "curto" for "gosto" you have to use a preposition along with it).
-Eu gosto DE ler artigos sobre ficção científica.
GOSTO DE/ CURTO - They're changeable, just don't forget to use the preposition with the verb gostar.
2)The slang TIPO (like)
Tipo is used to make comparisons, you're right. But yet, it is a slang. We also use it when we don't know what something is, so we use tipo and another word to try to explain what we mean. I know it's pretty confusing, but let's take a look at some examples.
-Helicóptero é tipo um avião.
(A helicopter is like an airplane.)
*Because both can fly and take people from one place to another. There are some similar aspects between the two things, but they are not the same, it is just a comparison.
-Meu namorado meu deu uma pulseira dourada tipo de ouro.
(My boyfriend gave me a golden bracelet like a gold one).
*It means that although the bracelet looks like is made of gold, it isn't actually.
×Again, it is very informal, I advise you to use it only in informal conversation or informal writing. I hope I was able to help you!
×Last but not least, don't overuse 'tipo'.