Secondly, what can be done is that government should impose and increase the toll and taxes on the car users. If the car user is made to pay high amount of taxes, it will act as a deterrent. That leads to the substantial reduction of registration of new cars. When the public transportation system is upgraded simultaneously with increase of taxes, it will compel some of the car users to switch to buses and trams etc.
It would also be wise on the part of the government to incentivize clean energy. That is to say, government should provide subsidy to electric cars, battery run vehicles etc. Government should be forth coming to reduce import and purchase duties on such vehicles.
Last but not the least suggestion that could be made is that public institutions responsible for environment protection should be pro-active to enforce the existing rules and regulations. The numerous strict and stringent laws relating to emission standards passed by parliaments have been ineffectively enforced mainly due to rampant corruption in many countries. If such situations change, the car owners will check the vehicles regularly and make sure that they are within the emission norms.
Therefore, in my conclusion, I would argue that all the stakeholders must be enjoined to fulfill their obligations and commitments to protect the environment. This should necessarily be followed by strict enforcement of laws.