The big difference between 건조하다 and 마르다(말리다) is that 건조 is Chinese word and 마르다(말리다) is Korean word. But the meaning is exactly same.
And 건조하다,마르다(말리다) are usually used as a passive form.
Ex) 1.'그 옷을 다 건조시켰다./그 옷을 다 말렸다. -the cloth is dried'
2.'그 여자가 그 옷을 건조시키고 있다./그 여자가 그 옷을 말리고 있다.-she is drying the cloth.'
3.'건조시켜라!'/'말려라!' - Let it dried!'
And as you noticed, 마르다 is used only as a form, '말ㄹ-'.
It refers to a thin body shape as well.
Ex) '그 여자애는 말랐다.=she is thin.'
We use 마르- as a original form to express the thirst, the active form and adjective form.
Ex) 1. '운동해서 목이 마르세요?=Are you thirsty after a exercise?' (But you can use actually both of them, 마르다/말르다. Especially, in the informal form, we say only '목말라.=I'm thirsty'. There is no '목마라X')
2. '그 옷이 마르는 중이다.=The cloth is drying' (The active form)
3. '그 마른 옷 = the dried cloth', '그 마른 여자 = the thin woman' (adjective form)
마른=thin(not that 100% positive)
살을 빼다=lose a weight, go on a diet
날씬하다=slim(quite positive and we don't use this word to a male.)
Ex)야!너 언제 살뺐어? 되게 날씬하다.. 아니다!! 너무 말랐다! =Hey, when did you lose a weight? so slim.. no!! too thin!
떨어지다=fall from a high height. You can imagine that there must be an air.
Ex)산에서 넘어지다 / 아파트에서 떨어지다 (They make sense. But if you go paragliding, then you can say '산에서 떨어지다' of course.)
There is no difference between 서류 and 문서. They are both very formal document.
BUT! if you just ask to any Korean without no explanation, which one correct is, '언제 서류를 써요?' and '언제 문서를 써요?'
Then, we will say 문서 is correct. Because, there is a common, but very subtle impression. It's quite intermediate Korean..
서류=done document or the high-positioning person is reading it
문서=have to be filled in document or more general or easy document than 서류
Maybe, some Koreans don't agree with this, but I'm quite sure it is.
I hope it would help you!