Q1 No. 'Give odds' means calculate a likelihood in numerical terms, for example 'ten to one'. Bookies are bookmakers, who are the people or organisations who TAKE, not make the bets.
Q2 No. It refers to 'odds'.
Q3 It means that it's unlikely he would have survived. He would have been a thousand times more likely not to have survived than to have survived.
Q4 Longer odds means even less likely.
Q5 No. If you beat the odds, it means that you do the unexpected - like when a horse with long odds ends up winning the race. Here is means surviving, in spite of the long odds. As the text says, this is what makes people carry on gambling - the chance of beating the odds and winning a fortune.