What Edward Said is referring to is 'us vs. them' mentality. When he wrote his piece, everything outside the 'civilised' states (usually first world nations that spoke English) (nations of the world = a state) where considered different and inferior, hence he coined it 'orientalism'. It's a poor choice of language, since 'oriental' comes across as 'Asian', but it is referring to anything different from traditional 'western' thought.
Occidentalism is the reverse, where people outside of the west (or states that speak english) have stereotypes and beliefs that portray the west as inferior.
Both concepts 'de-humanize' one another.
Eurocentrism is similar to orientalism, basically that people view the world and others through a 'european' lense. But orientalism also includes American/ North American world views, as well as Australia/ New Zealand.
As for 'social standard theory' i don't know much about this, I only know the other terms from classes in Asian Studies and International relations.
Hope this helps