Present perfect amd past indefinite. Why that HAVE clearly IDENTIFIED(PRESENT PERFECT) it,but Dostoyevsky WROTE(PAST INDEFINITE) in his Diary of a Writer"? Bush didn’t need to look into Putin’s eye to get a sense of that; he could have turned to the Russian writers that HAVE clearly IDENTIFIED it. Indeed, Putin is a product—a dangerous, tangible reflection—of the Russian Soul. And Russian literature, as Kaufman says, is “the place we see it in full flower.” The drama that unfolds in the Kremlin to this day can be traced back to the messianic vision of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Dostoyevsky believed that Russia had a heavenly ordained mission to lead a Pan-Slavic Christian empire. “Russia will thereby conquer and finally attract the Slavs to herself,” Dostoyevsky WROTE in his Diary of a Writer, “At first they will apply to her in times of calamity, but subsequently, some day, they will come back to her, and they will all press themselves to her, with complete, childish trust. They will all return to their native nest.”
Jan 16, 2017 11:58 AM
Answers · 2
The "identifying" happened before the present but is still relevant in the present. The "writing" happened and finished in the past and Dosoyevsky is dead. When you refer to a living author, you can use the present perfect, again to indicate relevance to the present e.g. Stephen King has written a book which will shiver the spines of all its readers!
January 16, 2017
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