In the US I haven't really heard any other terms besides "blue-collar" and "white-collar." It basically refers to whether or not your job involves manual labor. It is mostly used in the context of corporations and factories. Yes, teachers are "white-collar workers" but it's not a common way to describe them.
To some extent it has to do with the distinction made in the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. Workers who are covered by the act punch a time card to record when are working on the job, are often paid by the hour, work a forty-hour work week, may be asked to work more than that but must be paid "time-and-a-half for overtime." These are roughly the same as "blue-collar workers."
"Exempt" employees (i.e. except from the act) are typically salaried, work whatever number of hours their supervisor can convince them to work, and (usually) work in a clean office environment and dress more formally than people working on a shop floor.
(For example, it is very dangerous to wear a tie if you are working with machine tools!)