무슨 일 있어요? = 무슨 일이 있어요? = Is something wrong / the matter? (the speaker doesn't know anything yet.)
무슨 일인데요? = What is the matter/problem? (the speaker knows there's something going on, and wants to know more.)
Other than the above, there is 무슨 일이에요? which has the same meaning but more common than 무슨 일인데요?.
We don't say just 일인데요? or 무슨 일이 일인데요?, if that's what you meant by the last phrase you listed.