Oh, so it's a spelling / reading question. Natives just learn it by listening (you need to learn how we really distinguish "voiced" and "unvoiced" finals), but there are some "secrets". Your first few examples are just random; the spelling or pronunciation has gotten "corrupted" over the centuries. Here are some thoughts about the other ones.
Choose Vs Goose: Verb root ends in /z/, noun in /s/. Also applies to /v/ versus /f/ (believe / belief), etc.
Excuse Vs Useful: Verb versus noun. Note that both "excuse"and "use" end in unvoiced consonants as nouns, voiced consonants as verbs. Advice / advise, house / house, bathe, bath, teeth, teethe, etc.
Has Vs Gas: Verb versus noun.
Reason Vs Awesome: Morpheme boundary. Awesome = awe + some (compare to "awful", awe-inspiring"). "Reason" is not analyzed as two morphemes in English.
By the way, if you mix up voiced and unvoiced continuants in English, you'll probably still be understood. Unlike in French. I'll have the "poisson", not the "poison" thank you very much ;)