Usages for colloquial expressions are more difficult to explain than the Rules of Grammar. There is not a "need" to learn the use of expressions like that.
If you learn to use simple "Yes" and "No" and "Maybe" you will being doing well.
It is an unfortunate consequence of the Television Shows that people watch to practice English, that the student supposes that they need to learn expressions like you indicate here.
(A) So in answer to your question; There is no "how" to use them.
"Well put." Is simply an agreement. It is equivalent to offering an assent, like "Yes."
(B) "That came out wrong."; simply means that the person said something whose meaning they had not intended.
You cannot learn English by attempting to be like a trained parrot or a Robot to produces
"phrases" or "expressions that have been acquired from watching TV.
In fact, what Americans value most in a human being, is sincerity. If a person offers speech that is not genuine, but is simply created just to Fit---In---With---The---Crowd, you will become a social reject.
One of the keys to learning to speak English naturally, is to make a connection between
WORDS and FEELINGS.
TV Situation Comedies (called Sit-Coms) such as you mention here, are not the best platforms for fluency in English. They impress upon viewers that what is vitally important is coy behavior and the use of the Double Entendre. If anything, they keep people confused.
Most people who view those programs in the United States are not "literate" people.
The laughter is "canned" as well. TV Sit-Coms are a far remove from reality.