"Garbage" is wet, It is typically food waste. It decays and stinks.
"Trash" is dry: typically paper, cardboard, glass, plastic.
Towns often require that garbage and trash be separated. There may be official local definition of "garbage" and "trash."
"Rubbish" is _understood_ in the U.S. but is _used_ more in the U.K. and I don't know the details. I think "rubbish" is a very broad, inclusive term.
"Litter" means, specifically, trash OR garbage that has just been tossed into the street, instead of being put into a trashcan. Typical kinds of litter include empty soda cans, empty potato chip bags, and empty sandwich wrappers.
I THINK THAT...
"Recycle" is coming into use, as a noun, meaning "trash of the kinds that can be recycled." "Honey, could you put out the recycle?" I DON'T THINK THAT'S IN THE DICTIONARIES YET.