仔细：careful(ly),don't overlook or make mistakes,usually use it to describe doing something carefully
细心：thoughtful，considerate， usually use it to describe personality or character,or the way someone do things
小心：watch out ,be aware of dangers,usually used as a phrase or verb
详细：complete and detailed ,usually used to describe written content or spoken words
you raised a great question.em,it is hard for you to distinguish them as words, maybe you put them into specific usages. better gather some examples and feel the difference.
i wish my answer can help you a little bit