Generally in Chinese we can devide sentence in to three types in different context: 陈述句，疑问句，感叹句.
陈述句(Declaretive sentence) is somethine you use to state a fact or idea. Mostly you use it when telling people about something. Here we can further subdivide this type into affirmative sentence and negetive sentence. For instance, I want(我要XXX) and I don't want(我不要XXXX). And as for detail sentence structure and grammer, in Chinese we also have nouns, verbs, and adj and adv, something like that. I'm not going to go too deep here because it's a too big topic to talk. But basically it's structure are very similiar with those in English as long as you know what those words really means.
疑问句（Question sentence). Literally this is what you use to raise a question. Did you eat something? 你吃了嘛? Question like this is about facts. And for reasoning in Chinese, we use 为什么 just like "why". Why are you late for school?你为什么迟到?
感叹句（Exclaimation). This is used when you express strong emotion. Like how beatiful the mountain is! 这山多漂亮啊！ I just can't imagine he did it!我没想到他竟然做到了！
Finally, I would like to say still I think the general grammer for Chinese is pretty similiar to those in English. In this moment I would suggest you to listen and talk more to local people, whether online or offline. Don't worry too much about the grammer in the very beginning stage because even you place the sentence in a very odd way, native people can still understand it someway by guessing. The most important thing therefore now, is to know more meaning and usage of some basic words. Good luck! Welcomed to contact me for further questions:)