Normally, the word "like" is used when you compare nouns and "as" is used for comparing verbs.
"He thinks like a lawyer" is normal English usage because no verb follows lawyer, so we have a parallel between "he" and "lawyer."
"Law students learn to think as a lawyer does" is grammatically correct, though a bit unidiomatic. We--at least in the US--are more likely to say "Law students learn to think the way a lawyer does."
A somewhat more subtle distinction follows:
"As your lawyer, I advise you not to do that." This means that I am your lawyer and I'm telling you not to do it.
"Like your lawyer, I advise you not to do that." That means that I am giving you the same advice your lawyer gives you. (I am like your lawyer in this case.)