In the U.S. they are pretty much interchangeable synonyms, with exactly the same usage rules. As Andrew says, when used figuratively to mean difficult burden, we use "baggage." I can't come up with any explanation of how we choose one or the other. Googling suggests that airline use the word "baggage" much more often than "luggage." "Luggage" is a little dignified--you can say "expensive leather luggage," but "expense leather baggage" doesn't sound right. "Baggage" emphasizes what it is--a container, like a bag--and "luggage" suggests what you do with it--lug it.