Kylecito
use of 'shika', 'dake' and 'igai'? examples? Hello! I downloaded one huge pdf with the explanation but it's REALLY, REALLY technical ( http://home.uchicago.edu/~keiko/work/2007_01_LSA_shika(Handout).pdf ), so I wondered if anyone could explain it in a simpler way! So far what I got is, 'shika' can only be used with negative verbs. even though it means 'only', the real meaning would be 'anything but... didn't....' Is this right? The examples say a) 'John shika konakatta' - 'Only John came' ? If I wanted to say, 'only john DIDNT come', should I use 'dake' like: b) 'John dake konakatta' ? Then, why can't I use 'kedo' as 'only' too?, as in c) 'John dake kita' What if i said: d) 'John shika kita' - would it mean anything at all? do 'dake' and 'shika' replace particles? Let's pretend i want to write 'you're the only one i want to meet' would e) ' kimi shika aitakunai no ' be right? ( the 'no' ending softens it in an emotional way, right?) Now what about igai? MANY thanks in advance for any answers, as always :)
Sep 21, 2008 11:18 PM
Answers · 1
I'll try to answer you Q's line-by-line :-) So far what I got is, 'shika' can only be used with negative verbs. even though it means 'only', the real meaning would be 'anything but... didn't....' Is this right? >> shika is only for negative sentences. The examples say a) 'John shika konakatta' - 'Only John came' ? >>That's correct. But it is implying that many others were expected to come but it turns out that only >>John came. So it is unexpected or even a little disappointment is implied there. If I wanted to say, 'only john DIDNT come', should I use 'dake' like: b) 'John dake konakatta' ? >> This means only John didn't come. But this implies also that everyone else who were expected >> to come came, except for John. Then, why can't I use 'kedo' as 'only' too?, as in c) 'John dake kita' >> This means only John came. But this implies that there were other who were expected (or invited) >> but only John turned up, and nobody else did. What if i said: d) 'John shika kita' - would it mean anything at all? >> This sentence is wrong; either John shika konakatta or John dake kita, as explained above, makes >> sense and correct. do 'dake' and 'shika' replace particles? Let's pretend i want to write 'you're the only one i want to meet' would e) ' kimi shika aitakunai no ' be right? ( the 'no' ending softens it in an emotional way, right?) >> I want to meet only you (and nobody else). Yes, "no" is an affirmative particle which does not add >> any meaning but makes the sentence less direct or softer, slightly. Now what about igai? >>Igai is equivalent of "except", or "other than". John igai kita means everyone except John came. I hope this helps. Keep asking interesting grammar questions!
September 22, 2008
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