You mean "I take five minutes to get ready" or whatever? Yes, you can, but it's not usual. You might say it when comparing different people: "I take five minutes to get ready, but my brother takes fifteen". But by itself, what you started with is the most common: "It takes me five minutes to get ready". Note that this construction is really a circumlocution for "To get ready takes me five minutes", and in that case, the subject of the sentence is "to get ready" rather than a reference to a person.