What is the difference between these two? What is the difference between

~이에요 and ~이세요 ?

When is each used?


Jun 16, 2018 10:48 AM
Answers · 4
It's a bit complex subject involving two separate concepts of politeness. I will call them "polite" and "honorific". 이에요 = a polite sentence ending form of 이다 ("is"). It shows courtesy to the other person (the listener). 이세요 = a polite and *honorific* ending form of 이다. It shows respect toward the subject of 이세요, which may or may not be the listener. Here is how the two phrases are formed. 이에요 = 이다 + -어요 (politeness suffix) -> 이어요 -> 이에요. (이어요 becomes 이에요 for easier pronunciation) 이세요 = 이시다 + -어요 -> 이시어요 -> 이셔요 -> 이세요. (again, 이셔요 becomes 이세요 for a similar reason) 이시다 = honorific version of 이다. You add the -시 suffix to the stem to get an honorific version (이다->이시다, 가다->가시다) Here are usage examples of the two. 1. 저는 학생이에요 = "I am a student" said in a polite register - the subject is "I", so it uses the non-honorific "이다". 2. 저의 아버지는 공무원이세요 = "My father is a public official" - honorific 이시다 is used because the subject is "father". Politeness is usually expressed through the sentence ending form, while honorific forms can appear anywhere in the sentence. - 공무원이신 우리 아버지는 아침에 일찍 출근하세요 - uses honorific form "이신" (from 이시다), in a polite sentence. - 롱무원이신 우리 아버지는 아침에 일찍 출근하셔 - uses an honorific from in a plain sentence (talking to a friend). - 중학생인 제 동생은 아침에 일찍 학교에 가요 - similar sentence, but the subject is a younger brother, so a plain from 인 (from 이다) is used.
June 16, 2018
You should add ‘~(으)시’ to verbs/adjectives in which the acting person deserves respect, regardless of who you are speaking to. You can add ‘~시’ to word stems ending in a vowel and ‘~으시’ to stems ending in a consonant. Once ‘~(으)시’ is added, the verb/adjective gets conjugated as usual as if the stem ended in ‘~(으)시.’ e.g. 그는 학생이에요. 저 분은 선생님이세요. (Express honorific for the subject) 누구예요? means "Who is he/she/it?" (asking the listener about someone else) 누구세요? means "Who are you?"
June 16, 2018
If you want to talk gentley or politely, you can use 이세요 instead of 이에요.
June 16, 2018
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