Joy
Please check this sentence for me i'm still confused between formal and informal grammar in Korean. Anyone please help me, suggest any tips to use it correctly 어느 추운 겨울에 호랑이가 숲 속을 다녔어요. "배가고픈데 뮈 먹을 것이 없은니?"
Nov 7, 2018 5:57 AM
Answers · 3
어느 추운 겨울에 호랑이가 숲 속을 다녔어요 is fine. It's using the soft, polite style prose which is common for children's books (adult books use the -다 ending though). 없은니? in the second sentence is wrong. It should be 없니? if you want the -니? question ending. But the overall description gives the impression that the tiger is talking to himself, i.e. wondering out loud. if so, you would use -나? or -ㄹ까? which is for that. 없니? is for asking someone, and it sounds strange because there is only one character. Speech style involves politeness, formality, and showing respect - it is more than just formal versus informal. There is a set of sentence endings to express politeness/formality, and there are "honorific" verb forms which express respect. The sentence endings change the register of the speech to the person you're talking to. Here's a summary of the four distinct styles, based on present tense 가다(verb) and 슬프다(adj) example. 1. -ㅂ니다: 갑니다, 슬픕니다. (polite and formal when used in writing, talking to a group, in broadcasting, etc) 2. -다: 간다, 슬프다. (impersonal in writings, familiar in speech) 3. -아/어요: 가요, 슬퍼요. (polite - the most common speech form between adults) 4. -아/어: 가, 슬퍼. (familiar - between close friends, or when talking to children) (New learners can get by with the polite style of #3 for all situations.) An honorific form of a verb shows respect to the subject of the verb, i.e. the person mentioned in the sentence, which is not necessarily the same as the listener. 1. 영철아, 선생님이 못 오신대 (= 못 오신다고 해) = 영철, they say the teacher can't come. 2. 선생님, 빨리 오세요. = Teacher, please come quick. In #1, the ending is in familiar form (#4 above) as the speaker is talking to their friend, but it's using the honorific form 오시다 instead of plain 오다 because they want to be respectful to the teacher being mentioned. In #2, the speaker is talking to the teacher, so they're using the polite ending -아/어요 as well as the honorific form 오시다 (오시다 + -아/어요 -> 오시어요 -> 오세요).
November 8, 2018
thanks alot @kun kim
November 8, 2018
Honestly, I believe it would be really hard for non-native speakers to use formal grammar correctly. The simplest rule to remember is that formal one usually followed by 요, but it is still quite complicated because it changes a form of the sentence. For example, 어느 추운 겨울에 호랑이가 숲 속을 다녔어요,(which is you posted ), this is in formal form. you can see 요 at the end right? you can switch this into informal by deleting and changing form of the end. 어느 추운 겨울에 호랑이가 숲 속을 다녀왔어. this is an inform form. The latter sentence, "배가고픈데 뭐 먹을 것이 없니?" is in informal form. you can change this to formal one by adding 요 and changing the end of sentence. 배가 고픈데 뭐 먹을것이 없어"요"? I understand this is quite complicated, and as a native speak, I do not know what kind of rules applies.
November 8, 2018
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Joy
Language Skills
English, Korean, Vietnamese
Learning Language
Korean