They are often used interchangeably to show possession, but what is often missed is that "have got" is a present perfect form. This implies that something happened in the past to explain the current possession. In some cases, by using "have" you suggest it is a natural state.
"I have brown hair" is natural. "I've got brown hair" means you probably dyed it.
For money and other things you acquire, either form may be used.
The "I've a..." form is still used, but I also have misgivings about using it.